Echinochloa colona frumentacea (Link) Ridl.
Echinochloa crus-galli edulis Hitchc.
Echinochloa crus-galli edulis Honda
Echinochloa crus-galli frumentacea (Link) W.F.Wright
Echinochloa glabrescens barbata Kossenko
Echinochloa glabrescens glabra Kossenko
Echinochloa glabrescens pilosa Kossenko
Oplismenus frumentaceus (Link) Kunth
Panicum crus-galli edule Makino & Nemoto
Panicum crus-galli frumentacea (Link) Trimen
Panicum frumentaceum Roxb.
Common Name: Japanese Millet
Japanese millet is a robust, erect, clump-forming grass producing culms 30 - 200cm tall.
The plant is sometimes harvested from the wild for local use of its edible seed. It is sometimes cultivated, especially in India and E. Asia for this seed, especially in areas where rice will not grow. It is also sometimes used in soil stabilization projects.
Native habitat unknown, possibly derived in cultivation from E. crus-galli.
Not known in a truly wild situation.
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Japanese millet is an annual plant that can succeed in a wide range of environments from the temperate zone to the tropics. It can be found at elevations up to 1,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 25 - 30°c, but can tolerate 10 - 35°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 500 - 750mm, but tolerates 450 - 1,000mm[
Requires a sunny position[
]. Prefers a rich moist soil[
] but succeeds in ordinary garden soil[
]. Plants can succeed in soils with a pH as low as 4.5[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 4.8 - 7.2[
The fastest growing of the millets, it can produce a crop of seeds within 6 weeks of sowing in warmer areas of the world[
There are some named varieties[
Seed - cooked and used as a millet or as a rice[
]. The seed can be cooked whole or can be ground into a flour[
]. Usually eaten as a porridge[
]. The seed contains about 72.5% starch, 3.12% fat, 11.8% protein, 2.65% ash[
The plant is useful in the treatment of biliousness and constipation[
As an erosion control plant it is used as a quick growing companion crop with perennial grasses and legumes and is especially suited to wet sites[
Seed - sow in situ
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