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Useful Tropical Plants

Daemonorops jenkinsiana

(Griff.) Mart.

Arecaceae


It has been proposed - William J.Baker; A revised delimitation of the rattan genus Calamus (Arecaceae), Phytotaxa 197 (2): 139-152; 2015 - that the genera Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Pogonotium and Retispatha should all be subsumed into a revised and expanded concept of the genus Calamus. This revised treatment has been accepted in the 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families' and is likely to recieve further acceptance. For the time being, until there is wider acceptance of this change, we are not moving these species across into Calamus. The new name for this species in Calamus will be Calamus jenkinsianus Griff.[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

+ Synonyms

Calamus jenkinsianus Griff.

Calamus margaritae Hance

Calamus nutantiflorus Griff.

Daemonorops margaritae (Hance) Becc.

Daemonorops nutantiflora (Griff.) Mart.

Daemonorops pierreana Becc.

Daemonorops schmidtiana Becc.

Palmijuncus jenkinsianus (Griff.) Kuntze

Palmijuncus margaritae (Hance) Kuntze

Palmijuncus nutantiflorus (Griff.) Kuntze

Common Name:

Daemonorops jenkinsiana
Fruits, flowers, leaves and stems
Photograph by: Nguyen Tien Hiep
Image credit to Palmweb
Daemonorops jenkinsiana Daemonorops jenkinsiana Daemonorops jenkinsiana Daemonorops jenkinsiana

General Information

Daemonorops jenkinsiana is an evergreen, climbing palm, producing a dense cluster of vigorous unbranched stems that can be up to 50 metres long, 25 - 30mm in diameter, with internodes up to 40cm long[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. These stems can climb to the tops of the trees in the forest[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The stems and leaves are very spiny[
314
Title
Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.pacsoa.org.au/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Contains at least a little information on the majority of palm and cycad species, plus a wealth of photographs. A first class website.
].
A very important supplier of material for basket making etc, it is commonly gathered from the wild and is also cultivated, both for local use and for export. It is estimated that 20 - 25%, or 800 - 1,000 tonnes/year, of rattan production in China comes from this species[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

548
Title
Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden Calcutta. Vol. 12, Pt. 1
Publication
 
Author
Beccari O.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Bengal Secretariat Press; Calcutta.
Year
1911
ISBN
 
Description
A monograph of the genus Daemonorops. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

Range

E. Asia - southern China, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam.

Habitat

Found from the lowlands to the hills below elevations of 1,000 metres, it grows in primary or secondary rain forest and is also found in subtropical broadleaved forest[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Climber
Height40.00 m
Growth RateFast
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

Succeeding in the moist tropical lowlands, and also in the subtropics. The plant grows best where the mean annual temperature is in the range 20 - 32°c. Temperatures of 3°c or lower can kill young seedlings[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. It prefers a mean annual precipitation in excess of 1,500mm[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The plant grows best in areas where the shade is around 30 - 50%[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Seedlings require more sunlight than others for optimum growth[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. It prefers a humus-rich, moist, fertile soil[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Prefers a pH in the range 4.5 - 6.5[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Planted out when 12 months old, by the time the young plants are 24 - 36 months the first stem exceeds 1 metre in length and the first climbing whips appear[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Two to three years after establishment, the aerial stems may grow at a rate of 2 metres per year[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Flowering begins 5 - 6 years after sowing. At the age of 8 - 10 years,, a clump may already consist of over 30 aerial stems[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
It has been estimated that the yield could be about 7.9 tonnes/ha 10 - 11 years after establishment, and in the following years harvesting may be carried out 4 times in a rotation of five years[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Total projected yield may possibly reach 38.7 tonnes/ha within a management period of 25 years. However, these estimates are in need of critical confirmation[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The plant may have the potential to produce an exponential increase in the number of aerial stems, but because of competition between them, most of the suckers may not be able to develop into stems[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Although the plant requires the support of a pre-existing tree crop or forest canopy for climbing, it requires sufficient sunlight to encourage the development of aerial stems[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. However, the new leaves of young seedlings may be scorched by full sunlight[
31
Title
Shade Plants for Garden and Woodland.
Publication
 
Author
Brown.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. In China, smallholders plant it in scattered clumps in agroforestry systems[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. On a commercial scale it has been intercropped in forest at a spacing of 3 metres x 4 metres[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Edible Uses

Fresh shoots - cooked and eaten as a vegetable[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
1019
Title
A Field Guide of the Rattans of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
Khou Eang Hourt
Publisher
World Wildlife Fund
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A draft publication giving an excellent concise guide to the various rattan species growing in Cambodia.
].

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

The canes are widely used for all types of weaving and basketware as well as in furniture making[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
314
Title
Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.pacsoa.org.au/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Contains at least a little information on the majority of palm and cycad species, plus a wealth of photographs. A first class website.
,
1019
Title
A Field Guide of the Rattans of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
Khou Eang Hourt
Publisher
World Wildlife Fund
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A draft publication giving an excellent concise guide to the various rattan species growing in Cambodia.
]. They are both flexible and durable, around10 - 30mm in diameter [
1019
Title
A Field Guide of the Rattans of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
Khou Eang Hourt
Publisher
World Wildlife Fund
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A draft publication giving an excellent concise guide to the various rattan species growing in Cambodia.
].
The long and slender stems of rattan are put to various uses according to their size, length, flexibility, elasticity and toughness. The most slender canes are employed entire for binding purposes, and in making chairs, blinds, mats, wicker or basketwork, fishing implements, etc. Twisted together, they make very strong cables. The largest and more resistent canes are used entire as cables, the framework of wicker chairs etc. Usually, however, for many purposes the stems are split throughout their length into 2 - 4 or more strips from which the inner soft brittle and spongy portion is removed by means of a knife or same other instrument, so as to leave the external portion, which is hard, tough, flexible, elastic and has its outer surface very clean and smooth as if it had been varnished[
983
Title
Annals of the Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta Vol. XI and Appendix
Publication
 
Author
Dr Odoardo Beccari
Publisher
Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta
Year
1908
ISBN
 
Description
This volume of the journal is dedicated entirely to a monograph of the genus Calamus, which remains an important treatment over 100 years later.
].
Strips vary in width according to the use to which they are to be put. Those for delicate work, such as the network of furniture, small bags, hats, etc, are from 1 - 3mm wide; those employed as lashings in native housebuilding or in fastening the removable head of the Malay axe to its handle are from 5-6 mm wide[
983
Title
Annals of the Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta Vol. XI and Appendix
Publication
 
Author
Dr Odoardo Beccari
Publisher
Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta
Year
1908
ISBN
 
Description
This volume of the journal is dedicated entirely to a monograph of the genus Calamus, which remains an important treatment over 100 years later.
].
Collecting and preparing the stems is very simple. The stem is cut near the ground and detached from the trees by taking a strong hold of its base and thus pulling down the entire plant with its leaves. The most recent growth at the top of the plant is removed and then, handling it from the upper end, the stem is forcibly drawn in the opposite direction between two pieces of wood, thus removing the spiny coverings. It is then cut into lengths of about 5 metres, each piece is bent into two equal parts and the stems are fastened into bundles ready for market. The most valued stems are not thicker than a man's little finger and have a fine polished straw-yellow glassy surface[
983
Title
Annals of the Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta Vol. XI and Appendix
Publication
 
Author
Dr Odoardo Beccari
Publisher
Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta
Year
1908
ISBN
 
Description
This volume of the journal is dedicated entirely to a monograph of the genus Calamus, which remains an important treatment over 100 years later.
].

The seeds are used for making necklaces[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Propagation

Sow the cleaned seeds in a shady position in a nursery seedbed with a high sand content[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The germination rate of ripe and fresh seeds may be 85% or more[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Most seeds germinate 50 - 60 days after sowing, and after 60 - 90 days the primary leaf emerges. Young seedlings (with the first true leaf unexpanded) are transplanted into plastic pots containing soil plus added nutrients and then kept moist and under 20 - 30% shade[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Seedlings are ready to plant out when 12 - 15 months old[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Although it can be propagated by vegetative means, propagation by seeds is a more common method. Seeds should be extracted and cleaned before sowing. The moisture content of seeds should be kept higher than 29%[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. In order to improve germination, the inner integument that covers the embryo is sometimes sliced through in the nursery[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

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