Amyris punctata Roxb.
Clausena forbesii Engl.
Clausena lunulata Hayata
Clausena moningerae Merr.
Clausena punctata (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.
Clausena tetramera Hayata
Lawsonia falcata Lour.
Clausena excavata is a profusely branched, evergreen plant ranging in size from a shrub just 1 - 2 metres tall in China to a small tree that is usually up to 10 metres tall, but exceptionally up to 15 metres[
]. The straight bole, which sometimes branches from the base, can be up to 20cm in diameter[
The edible fruit is held in high esteem in many parts of the plants range, where it is often gathered from the wild for local use[
]. The tree also has edible leaves and is often cultivated as an ornamental[
E. Asia - southern China, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines.
The plant establishes dense stands along the sides of roads and in disturbed areas[
]. Evergreen and deciduous forests in Laos[
]. Secondary forest, brushwood and disturbed areas around villages, at elevations from sea-level to 1,500 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
The tree is often grown as an ornamental and there is one report, from Christmas Island, that the plant has escaped from cultivation and invaded native habitats[
]. The plant is spread by bird-sown seeds[
Leaves - cooked and eaten as a potherb[
]. The leaflets have a characteristic, curry-like smell when crushed[
Fruit - raw[
]. The fruit has the taste of grapes, accompanied with a peculiar flavour, being very grateful to the palate[
]. The scanty pulp of the fruit has an aniseed flavour[
]. The translucent pink berries are 7 - 10mm in diameter, each containing 1 - 2 seeds[
]. The fruits can be up to 20mm in diameter[
The plant is considered to be astringent, bitter, emmenagogue and tonic[
]. It is used in many parts of its range, especially in the treatment of digestive complaints.
A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of fevers, headaches and colic[
A decoction of the roots, flowers or leaves is taken for treating bowel complaints, such as colic, dyspepsia and stomach-ache[
The pounded root or leaves are used externally as a poultice on sores, including ulceration of the nose, or sometimes for yaws[
]. Ulcerations of the nose may also be treated by fumigation using burning leaves and bark[
A decoction of the leaves is taken after childbirth and also to treat stomach troubles[
]. The juice from the leaves is taken as a treatment for intestinal worms or cough[
]. They are used on their own, or in combination with Curcuma longa, for treating fevers, malaria or colds[
Used externally, the pounded leaves may be applied to the head for relieving headaches whilst a poultice of the leaves is applied in the treatment of paralysis[
An infusion of the stalks is taken orally for treating stomach aches[
The plant is often fond on disturbed ground such as along the sides of roads. This makes it sound like a potential pioneer species, though the rate of growth needs to be known first. There is also a possible concern that the plant could escape from cultivation and invade native habitats, so it should possibly only be used as a pioneer within its native range[
The leaves and bark contain essential oils that are used in the perfume industry[
The leaves are insecticidal[
The wood is white and has a fine structure[
]. Although often too small to be of much service, in Java the tree is large enough for the wood to be used for making axe handles[
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