At least one modern treatment (The Plant List) treats this species as no more than a synonym of Clausena sanki (Perr.) Molino[
Clausena grandifolia Merr.
Clausena laxifolia Quisumb. & Merr.
Clausena loheri Merr.
Clausena todayensis Elmer
Clausena warburgii Perkins
Cookia anisum-olens Blanco
Clausena anisum-olens is an aromatic, evergreen shrub or small tree growing up to 15 metres tall, though usually much smaller[
]. All parts of the plant emit a strong anise or anise-like smell when crushed[
The plant is gathered from the wild and also occasionally cultivated for medicinal use and as a flavouring. It is sold in local markets[
Southeast Asia - southern China, Philippines and Borneo.
In the understorey of rainforest, on various soil types (including limestone), up to elevations of 1,500 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
A plant of the humid, lowland tropics, growing best at elevations below 500 metres[
]. It grows well with an annual seasonal rainfall of around 2,000 mm, a maximum temperatures of about 30°c and minimum of about 20°c throughout the year[
Succeeds on poor, acid soils with a pH as low as 4.0[
At high planting densities, all leaves above a height of 0.8 - 1 metre can be harvested 2 - 4 times per year.
Trees should be maintained at about 1 metre height by means of post-harvest prunings. Frequency and timing of harvests should be guided by the rate of regrowth and depend on the availability of water. When water and nutrient requirements are met, leaf production is highest under unshaded conditions[
The first harvest can be 1 year after grafting on 2 - 4-year-old rootstocks[
The first year, a single harvest amounts to 0.6 - 1 kg leaves per tree. In the second year 1.7 - 2.2 kg are collected in two harvests. In subsequent years a tree yields 2.5 - 4 kg leaves annually, independent of the frequency of harvesting[
After harvesting the leaves it is recommended to extract the oil as soon as possible. Fermentation of the leaves should absolutely be avoided because it leads to production of unpleasant notes in the essential oil[
Oil yield is 1.6 - 2 kg oil from 100 kg fresh leaves. Preliminary estimates for production of essential oil per ha suggest that yields of 350 - 750 kg per year may be possible[
The leaves are used as a condiment in preparing local dishes and beverages and to flavour cigarettes[
The essential oil from the leaves is a potential substitute of anise oil, e.g. for the preparation of the Philippine drink 'Anisado'[
A decoction of leaves is used in the treatment of nausea during pregnancy[
The leaves are stuffed into pillows as an aid to sleeping[
]. They are said to have a soporific effect[
]. The leaves are also used in baths against rheumatism[
A decoction of the roots and fruits is used in the treatment of coughs with fever[
On steam distillation or alcoholic extraction, the leaves yield 1 - 3.5% essential oil[
]. The oil is a mobile pale-yellow liquid with an odour similar to that of star-anise oil[
]. The essential oil has potential use as a cheap source of natural anethol. It could compete not only with star-anise and anise oils in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries, but also with semi-synthetic anethol, a by-product of the turpentine-oil industry in the United States, in soaps, detergents and cosmetics[
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