Citrus × aurantium deliciosa (Ten.) Hiroë
Citrus × aurantium tachibana Makino
Citrus daoxianensis S.W. He & G.F. Liu
Citrus depressa Hayata
Citrus erythrosa Yu.
Citrus madurensis deliciosa (Ten.) Sagot
Citrus mangshanensis S.W. He & G.F. Liu
Citrus ponki Yu.
Citrus poonensis Yu.
Citrus succosa Tanaka
Citrus suhuiensis Hayata
Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka
Citrus tachibana (Makino) Yu
Citrus tangerine Yu.
Citrus tankan Hayata
Citrus unshiu Marcov.
Citrus vangasy Bojer
Citrus voangasay Bojer
Common Name: Mandarin
Photograph by: carol
Fruiting plant in the Limonaia del Castel, Limone sul Garda, on Lake Garda, Brescia, Italy
Photograph by: Daderot
Even small pot plants can fruit well, as here in Vietnam
Photograph by: Bùi Th?y ?ào Nguyên
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Photograph by: Lazaregagnidze
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Mandarin is a small, evergreen tree with axillary thorns, growing 3 - 8 metres tall[
A very popular fruit, widely available in countries around the world. It has been in cultivation for at least 3,000 years[
], and is widely grown for its edible fruit in many warm temperate to tropical areas[
E. Asia - possibly China or Indo-China.
Original habitat is obscure.
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Three main climates are suitable for commercial citrus production - tropical climates, subtropical with winter rain such as in the Mediterranean and semitropical with summer rainfall as found in Florida and southern Brazil[
]. The optimal temperatures for citrus cultivation range between 25 - 30°c, with the coldest month having an average minimum of at least 15°c[
]. Growth generally ceases below 13°c and above 38°c[
]. If there are dry periods of more than three months, then irrigation will be necessary[
]. This species grows better in the subtropics than in the tropics[
Prefers a moderately heavy loam with a generous amount of compost and sand added plus a very sunny position[
]. Prefers a pH between 5 and 6[
]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. Plants are intolerant of water logging[
]. When growing plants in pots, a compost comprising equal quantities of loam and leafmould plus a little charcoal should produce good results[
]. Do not use manure since Citrus species dislike it[
]. When watering pot plants it is important to neither overwater or underwater since the plant will soon complain by turning yellow and dying. Water only when the compost is almost dry, but do not allow it to become completely dry[
There are many named varieties[
Plants dislike root disturbance and so should be placed into their permanent positions when young. If growing them in pots, great care must be exercised when potting them on into larger containers[
Fruit - raw or cooked in puddings, cakes, confectionery etc[
]. It is sweet and delicious[
]. A thin-skinned fruit with a very pleasant, acidic-sweet flavour[
]. The fruit is up to 8cm in diameter[
The dried rind of the fruit has a sweet spicy flavour and is often used as a flavouring in cakes etc[
The rind is a source of pectin[
Citrus species contain a wide range of active ingredients and research is still underway in finding uses for them. They are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such as bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people[
]. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized cosmetics[
The fruit is antiemetic, aphrodisiac, astringent, laxative and tonic[
The flowers are stimulant[
The pericarp is analgesic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, antitussive, carminative, expectorant, stomachic[
]. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal distension, cough with profuse phlegm, hiccup and vomiting[
The endocarp is carminative and expectorant[
]. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal distension, coughs and profuse phlegm[
The unripened green exocarp is carminative and stomachic[
]. It is used in the treatment of pain in the chest and hypochondrium, gastro-intestinal distension, swelling of the liver and spleen and cirrhosis of the liver[
The seed is analgesic and carminative[
]. It is used in the treatment of hernia, lumbago, mastitis and pain or swellings of the testes[
An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines[
]. Yields are around 0.5%[
An essential oil obtained from the leaves and young twigs is called 'petitgrain oil'. Yields are around 0.5%[
The seed is best sown in containers as soon as it is ripe, after thoroughly rinsing it[
]. Sow stored seed in containers as soon as possible]. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 3 weeks at 13°c. Seedlings are liable to damp off so they must be watered with care and kept well ventilated. The seed is usually polyembryonic, two or more seedlings arise from each seed and they are genetically identical to the parent but they do not usually carry any virus that might be present in the parent plant[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 10cm or more tall before planting out into their permanent positions.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. This species grows easily from cuttings[
Layering in October.