If you would like to support this site, please consider Donating.
Useful Tropical Plants

Citharexylum spinosum

L.

Verbenaceae

+ Synonyms

Citharexylum bahamense Millsp. ex Britton

Citharexylum broadwayi O.E.Schulz

Citharexylum caudatum Sw.

Citharexylum cinereum L.

Citharexylum cinereum Moc. & Sessé ex D.Don

Citharexylum coriaceum Desf.

Citharexylum fruticosum L.

Citharexylum hybridum Moldenke

Citharexylum laevigatum Hostm. ex Griseb.

Citharexylum molle Jacq. ex Spreng.

Citharexylum molle Salisb.

Citharexylum pentandrum Vent.

Citharexylum polystachyum Turcz.

Citharexylum pulverulentum Pers.

Citharexylum quadrangulare Jacq.

Citharexylum subserratum Sw.

Citharexylum surrectum Griseb.

Citharexylum teres Jacq.

Citharexylum tomentosum Poir.

Citharexylum villosum Jacq.

Common Name: Fiddle Wood

Citharexylum spinosum
Plant growing in Parque Botanico de Maspalomas, Gran Canaria
Photograph by: Kenraiz
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Citharexylum spinosum Citharexylum spinosum Citharexylum spinosum Citharexylum spinosum Citharexylum spinosum Citharexylum spinosum

General Information

Fiddle wood is a graceful deciduous or evergreen tree with fragrant blooms[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
447
Title
Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Publication
 
Author
Little E.L.; Wadsworth F.H.
Publisher
USDA, Forest Service; Washington.
Year
1964
ISBN
 
Description
Contains detailed information, and usually an illustration, on 250 tree species, including both native and exotic species.
]. It can grow up to 16 metres tall, with a bole more than 30cm in diameter, though it often assumes a more shrub-like habit and is much smaller[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of a good quality wood. The wood is especially valued for making musical instruments, and the plant is often also grown as an ornamental[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
422
Title
Fruits of the Guianan Flora
Publication
 
Author
van Roosmalen. M.G.M.
Publisher
Institute of Systematic Boyany, Utrecht University; Netherlands.
Year
1985
ISBN
90-9000988-4
Description
Terse descriptions of over 1,700 species from the Guianas that bear fruits - not necessarily edible! Often mentions if the fruit is edible, plus gives brief description of habit and habitat.

Range

S. America - Venezuela, the Guyanas; C. America - Panama; Caribbean - Trinidad to Cuba and the Bahamas.

Habitat

Ridge forests, especially on the coastal plain of the Guyanas[
422
Title
Fruits of the Guianan Flora
Publication
 
Author
van Roosmalen. M.G.M.
Publisher
Institute of Systematic Boyany, Utrecht University; Netherlands.
Year
1985
ISBN
90-9000988-4
Description
Terse descriptions of over 1,700 species from the Guianas that bear fruits - not necessarily edible! Often mentions if the fruit is edible, plus gives brief description of habit and habitat.
]. Drier habitats, generally at elevations below 500 metres[
305
Title
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.hear.org/pier/scientificnames/index.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A very good website detailing weed species that have been introduced into the Pacific Islands.
]. Coastal areas, limestone hills, dry mountains and moist foothills, at elevations up to 900 metres[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Properties

Weed PotentialYes
Edibility Rating *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height16.00 m
Growth RateMedium
PollinatorsInsects, Bees
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the tropics to the subtropics of the Bahamas. It can endure wide fluctuations in temperature in the northern reaches of its range with a summer mean around 27.5°c, a winter mean of 16°c and occasional light frosts[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. It is found in areas where the mean annual rainfall is within the range 1,000 - 2,000mm, which can be evenly distributed, or there can be a short dry season of 2 - 3 months[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Grows best in a sunny position[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Also succeeds in dappled shade[
372
Title
Flowers of India
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.flowersofindia.net/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A wed site of native Indian plants, plus cultivated and naturalized species. It has good quality photos and terse details on more than 3,000 species and cultivars.
]. Prefers a well-drained but moisture-retentive, humus-rich, fertile soil[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
302
Title
Tropical Ornamentals; A Guide
Publication
 
Author
Whistler. W. Arthur.
Publisher
Timber Press Inc. Oregon.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-88192-448-2
Description
An excellent little guide to some of the more commonly cultivated ornamental plants of the Tropics, often giving some information on the plants other uses.
]. The plant is tolerant of a wide range of soils from clay to gravelly and sandy, dry soils, and also adapts to a wide range of soil pH from 5 - 8[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
,
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. It is sometimes found on somewhat poorly drained sites[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. The plant is moderately tolerant of salt-laden winds[
372
Title
Flowers of India
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.flowersofindia.net/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A wed site of native Indian plants, plus cultivated and naturalized species. It has good quality photos and terse details on more than 3,000 species and cultivars.
]. The relatively weak wood is susceptible to breakage in strong winds[
302
Title
Tropical Ornamentals; A Guide
Publication
 
Author
Whistler. W. Arthur.
Publisher
Timber Press Inc. Oregon.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-88192-448-2
Description
An excellent little guide to some of the more commonly cultivated ornamental plants of the Tropics, often giving some information on the plants other uses.
].
Often grown as an ornamental plant, it has escaped from cultivation in some areas and established itself. The main way of the plant spreading is by means of bird-sown seeds[
302
Title
Tropical Ornamentals; A Guide
Publication
 
Author
Whistler. W. Arthur.
Publisher
Timber Press Inc. Oregon.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-88192-448-2
Description
An excellent little guide to some of the more commonly cultivated ornamental plants of the Tropics, often giving some information on the plants other uses.
]. It is classified as 'Invasive' in Hawaii[
305
Title
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.hear.org/pier/scientificnames/index.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A very good website detailing weed species that have been introduced into the Pacific Islands.
].
Trees usually begin producing fruit before the age of 10 years when open-grown[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Plants can flower and produce fruit all year round[
302
Title
Tropical Ornamentals; A Guide
Publication
 
Author
Whistler. W. Arthur.
Publisher
Timber Press Inc. Oregon.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-88192-448-2
Description
An excellent little guide to some of the more commonly cultivated ornamental plants of the Tropics, often giving some information on the plants other uses.
,
447
Title
Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Publication
 
Author
Little E.L.; Wadsworth F.H.
Publisher
USDA, Forest Service; Washington.
Year
1964
ISBN
 
Description
Contains detailed information, and usually an illustration, on 250 tree species, including both native and exotic species.
].
Young trees coppice vigorously, but older trees lose this vigour[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. Adventitious buds develop profusely, filling the lower part of the tree with sucker growth[
478
Title
Botanical Museum Leaflets Vol 11
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Harvard University; Cambridge, Mass.
Year
1945
ISBN
 
Description
Includes an article on the Economic Plants of S. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The tree is often reported to have hermaphrodite flowers, but at least in parts of its range the male and female flowers, although they look very similar) are borne on different trees[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. A sweet flavour, though rarely eaten by humans[
447
Title
Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Publication
 
Author
Little E.L.; Wadsworth F.H.
Publisher
USDA, Forest Service; Washington.
Year
1964
ISBN
 
Description
Contains detailed information, and usually an illustration, on 250 tree species, including both native and exotic species.
,
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Medicinal

A decoction of the young twigs is used in the treatment of children's thrush[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
].

A decoction of the bark is used as a treatment for colds[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The nectar-rich flowers are very attractive to bees[
372
Title
Flowers of India
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.flowersofindia.net/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A wed site of native Indian plants, plus cultivated and naturalized species. It has good quality photos and terse details on more than 3,000 species and cultivars.
,
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Other Uses

The heartwood is a light brownish or red; it is indistinctly demarcated from the yellow, grey or white sapwood, which can be present as a thin or wide layer. The wood is close-grained, very hard and strong. It sands to a fine finish. It is used for making furniture, musical instruments such as guitars, and is also used for general construction, windows, doors, beams etc[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
372
Title
Flowers of India
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.flowersofindia.net/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A wed site of native Indian plants, plus cultivated and naturalized species. It has good quality photos and terse details on more than 3,000 species and cultivars.
,
447
Title
Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Publication
 
Author
Little E.L.; Wadsworth F.H.
Publisher
USDA, Forest Service; Washington.
Year
1964
ISBN
 
Description
Contains detailed information, and usually an illustration, on 250 tree species, including both native and exotic species.
,
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. The wood is useful for fenceposts and other rough construction where resistance to termites and to rot are required[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
The wood is used to make charcoal[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Propagation

Seed - sown in a nursery seedbed, it usually starts sprouting within 13 days from sowing[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. Pot up the seedlings about 1 month later when around 5cm tall into individual containers and move to a position in 25% shade. They should be ready to plant out about 3 months later when around 40cm tall[
798
Title
Citharexylum fruticosum. L. Péndula, fiddlewood. Verbenaceae. Verbena Family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; 4 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 34).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30397
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Citharexylum fruticosum. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2018-12-12. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Citharexylum+spinosum>

Add a Comment:

If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here.