Cinchona affinis Wedd.
Cinchona parviflora Poir.
Cinchona peruviana micrantha (Ruiz & Pav.) Howard
Cinchona peruviana reicheliana Howard
Cinchona reicheliana Howard
Quinquina micrantha (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze
Common Name: Huannco
Huannco is an evergreen shrub or small tree that can grow up to 8 metres tall[
The plant has long been used medicinally by the native people of S. America to treat fevers and a range of other conditions. The bark of this species, and several related species, has been shown to contain quinine, an effective antimalarial and febrifuge[
]. In the early 17th century, the Europeans became aware of the effectiveness of the bark of this tree in treating malaria and, over the next 200 years, the trees were greatly overexploited in the wild until commercial plantations were finally established in Java[
]. Largely replaced by synthetic drugs in the latter half of the 20th century, quinine has again become very important in treating malaria because various strains of malaria have developed resistance to the synthetics[
]. It is now grown in many tropical areas[
Western S. America - Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru.
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
Prefers high humidity and a temperature that does not fall below about 15°c[
Requires a well-drained, moist soil and a position in full sun or partial shade[
Quinine, extracted from the bark of the tree, is used as a bitter flavouring in tonic water and carbonated drinks[
Huannco has a long history of native use, especially as a treatment for fevers and malaria. Modern research has shown it to be a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria.
The bark contains various alkaloids, particularly quinine and quinidine[
The bark is a bitter, astringent, tonic herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine)[
The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders[
]. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation[
]. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies[
]. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throats[
Large and too constant doses must be avoided, as they produce headache, giddiness and deafness[
The powdered bark is often used in tooth-powders, owing to its astringency[
Nodal softwood cuttings[
Cuttings of half-ripe wood in a sandy soil[
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