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Useful Tropical Plants

Celtis africana

Burm.f.

Cannabaceae

+ Synonyms

Celtis burmannii Planch.

Celtis eriantha E.Mey. ex Planch.

Celtis henriquesii Engl.

Celtis holtzii Engl.

Celtis kraussiana Bernh.

Celtis opegrapha Planch.

Celtis rhamnifolia Presl.

Celtis vesiculosa Hochst. ex Planch.

Common Name:

Celtis africana
Tree growing in the shade of a south-facing cliff on the bank of the Crocodile river, Pelindaba, South Africa
Photograph by: JMK
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Celtis africana Celtis africana Celtis africana

General Information

Celtis africana is a deciduous shrub or a tree with a spreading crown; it can grow up to 30 metres tall, occasionally to 40 metres. The straight, cylindrical bole can be free of branches for up to 15 metres, though it is often low-branching. It is up to 90cm in diameter, often slightly fluted but usually without buttresses[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
,
308
Title
Flora Zambesiaca
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online flora of plants from the Zambezi River basin. It lists a number of the plant uses as well as the habitats and botanical descriptions of the plants.
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of timber. The tree is commonly planted as ornamental shade tree and roadside tree[299

Known Hazards

The pollen has been recorded as an allergen[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Botanical References

308
Title
Flora Zambesiaca
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online flora of plants from the Zambezi River basin. It lists a number of the plant uses as well as the habitats and botanical descriptions of the plants.

Range

Africa - mainly in the east, but extending from Liberia to Somalia and Arabia, south to Angola and S. Africa.

Habitat

Not common but widely distributed at medium to higher elevation in evergreen rainforests, wooded ravines, riverine fringes and on rocky outcrops in high rainfall areas, sometimes on termite mounds; coastal forests in S. Africa; elevations to 2,000 m[
308
Title
Flora Zambesiaca
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online flora of plants from the Zambezi River basin. It lists a number of the plant uses as well as the habitats and botanical descriptions of the plants.
].

Properties

Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height25.00 m
PollinatorsBees
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the tropics and subtropics. It can tolerate some frost[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Although it prefers relatively fertile and deep moist soils, it can also be found on sandy dunes and river banks, as well as on rocky soils, but under these conditions it usually only develops into a shrub[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Requires a well-drained soil[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Established plants are moderately drought resistant[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
A fast-growing plant with annual increases in height of 1 - 2 metres when young[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The first fruits may appear when trees are 4 years old[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The bark has a high content of phenolic compounds, deterring porcupines from damaging the bark[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

Several plant parts are used in traditional medicine[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The pounded bark is used to treat fever, headache and general malaise[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

A leaf decoction is applied to sore eyes[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The roots are boiled and the infusion drunk to stop shaking[
364
Title
Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania.
Publication
 
Author
Lovett J.C.; Ruffo C.K.; Gereau R.E.; Taplin J.R.D
Website
http://www.york.ac.uk/res/celp/webpages/projects/ecology/tree%20guide/introduction.htm
Publisher
Frontier
Year
0
ISBN
1-873070-33-0
Description
A lovely little book giving a basic identification guide to more than 650 species of trees growing in Tanzania. It is also available to view on the internet.
].

Unspecified plant parts are used to treat pleurisy[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Methanol extracts from leaves and stems have shown significant antioxidant activity, which is likely due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Root and leaf extracts showed only slight or no activity on cestodes of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta after one hour, but significant activity after 24 hours[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Other Uses

The fibrous bark is often used for making ropes and cloth[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The yellowish-white wood is heavy, hard, tough and strong[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. It is used for planks, yokes, triggers, axe handles, laths, fences, cooperage, railway ties etc[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].

The heartwood is yellowish white or pale brown to greenish brown, occasionally with dark irregular streaks; it is not distinctly demarcated from the whitish sapwood. There is often a dark brown to black stain around the pith. The grain is usually straight, sometimes interlocked; texture fine to moderately coarse and even; when freshly cut, the wood has an unpleasant smell, which has sometimes been described as 'apple-like'. The wood is moderately heavy; moderately hard; strong; tough; of low durability and susceptible to attacks by blue-stain fungi, termites, Lyctus and marine borers. It is fairly easy to saw and work with both machine and hand tools, and has moderate blunting effect on cutting edges; in planing a reduced cutting angle is needed to avoid tearing at surfaces; it takes a good finish with nice polish without the use of a filler; it has good nailing properties, but with some tendency to splitting.; it glues well; boring and mortising should be done with good support.; the bending properties are excellent, but turning properties poor. The wood is used for construction, flooring, joinery, interior trim, mine props, furniture, ladders, toys, novelties, sporting goods, agricultural implements, tool handles, pestles, tent-bows, yokes, wagon-making, spoons, boxes and crates. It is suitable for ship building, railway sleepers, veneer and plywood[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
,
364
Title
Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania.
Publication
 
Author
Lovett J.C.; Ruffo C.K.; Gereau R.E.; Taplin J.R.D
Website
http://www.york.ac.uk/res/celp/webpages/projects/ecology/tree%20guide/introduction.htm
Publisher
Frontier
Year
0
ISBN
1-873070-33-0
Description
A lovely little book giving a basic identification guide to more than 650 species of trees growing in Tanzania. It is also available to view on the internet.
].
The wood is used for fuel and for charcoal production[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Propagation

Seed -
Fresh seeds germinate within 60 days and may have a high germination rate. Treatment is not necessary, but germination is hastened by soaking stones in cold water for 24 hours before sowing. They can be stored for some time in airtight containers. In South Africa seeds are sown in flat seedling trays filled with a mixture of 5 parts river sand and 1 part well decomposed compost placed in a warm but shaded place. To promote germination, seeds should be covered with a thin layer of river sand and kept moist; under these circumstances germination takes 15 - 30 days with a germination rate up to 70%. It is recommended to transplant seedlings into fertile soil. They should be watered sparingly[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2019-09-18. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Celtis+africana>

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