Catha paniculata Scheidw.
Ceanothus paniculatus Roth
Celastrus alnifolius D.Don
Celastrus dependens Wall.
Celastrus euphlebiphyllus (Hayata) Kaneh.
Celastrus euphlebiphyllus (Hayata) Makino & Nemoto
Celastrus metzianus Turcz.
Celastrus multiflorus Roxb.
Celastrus nutans Roxb.
Celastrus polybotrys Turcz.
Celastrus pubescens Wall.
Celastrus rothianus Schult.
Diosma serrata Blanco
Euonymus euphlebiphyllus Hayata
Scutia paniculata G.Don
Celastrus paniculatus is a deciduous, climbing shrub producing stems up to 10 metres long and 25cm in diameter. The stems twine into the surrounding vegetation, helping to support themselves by means of hooked prickles[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of oil. The oil has gained a high reputation medicinally and is exported for use in a range of medications.
E. Asia - China, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia to Australia and New Caledonia.
Open moist places to elevations of 300 metres in Nepal[
]. Forest slopes at elevations of 200 - 2,000 metres in southern China[
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Celastrus paniculatus can be grown from the warm temperate zone through to the tropics, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c[
The plant fruits best when its roots are in the shade but its top growth can grow into a sunny position[
]. Prefers a deep loamy soil[
]. A gross feeder, it requires a rich soil[
A rampant climber, it requires ample space and is best grown into an old tree[
Plants climb by means of twining and by hooked prickles[
]. They do not normally require pruning[
Leaf shape can vary quite markedly in this species and it has at times been divided into three subspecies[
This species is closely related to Celastrus scandens[
A dioecious plant, both male and female forms must be grown if seed is required.
Young flowers - cooked and used as a vegetable[
The plant has a wide range of medicinal uses. It is often utilized within its native range and sometimes also exported. The seed and its oil are particularly valued.
The seed is aphrodisiac, bitter, emetic, laxative and stimulant[
]. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, leprosy, gout, fevers and paralysis[
The crushed seeds, a decoction of the seeds or the fixed oil from the seed are applied as a poultice, or taken internally. Credited with stimulant and diaphoretic properties, they are applied to relieve fevers, joint and muscular pains, and paralysis[
The oil from the seed is a powerful stimulant. It is used in the treatment of beriberi[
]. There are alkaloids in the oil that have a tranquilizing property[
]. In combination with Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), it is traded as a cognitive booster under the name Smart Oil[
]. The seed oil is a major component in various products to relieve rheumatic and muscular pains[
]. The oil is an ingredient of many more herbal medicines, claiming to enhance the nervous and mental system[
The plant is used as an antidote to opium[
]. It is also considered to be analgesic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, emetic, emmenagogue, stimulant and tonic[
The leaves can be an ingredient, together with 'adas-pulasari' (Alyxia reinwardtii and Foeniculum vulgare) of a prescription against dysentery[
]. The leaf sap has been used as an antidote for opium poisoning.
The root is used as an antimalarial and antipyretic[
The wood is used in the treatment of tuberculosis[
The bark is abortifacient[
]. The juice from the bark is used in the treatment of indigestion[
The stem bark is used as an antidysenteric and a decoction of the stem as a diuretic in the treatment of kidney disorders[
The fruits are considered antiflatulent, a blood tonic and a relief for fainting[
The oil has been shown to cause an overall decrease in the turnover of three central monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotin) which involved in the learning and memory process. Various animal trials have generally supported the idea that one or more constituents of the oil may offer cognitive enhancing properties and significant improvement in retention ability[
Pharmacological studies have shown that the seed oil has sedative and tranquillizing properties[
Fatty degeneration in the liver and proximal tubular damage in the kidney have been observed, hough these harmful effects appear to be transient[
An oily seed extract has shown strong antispermatogenic action, thereby pointing to useful antifertility effects of the seed oil[
A methanolic extract of the flowers has shown oral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities[
Many plants in this genus contain compounds of interest for their antitumour activity[
The seed contains 52% oil, and the fruit 30%[
]. It is used as an illuminant in lamps and also for soap making[
]. This oil is also used medicinally (see notes above)[
Seed - gather when ripe, remove the aril since this inhibits germination, and store in dry sand if not sowing immediately[
]. Three months cold stratification leads to a higher germination rate[
]. Germination rates are usually good[
]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until large enough to plant out.
Layering of the current seasons growth. It can take 12 months before a good root system is formed and the new plant can be transplanted[
Root cuttings, 6mm thick and 25mm long. Plant horizontally in pots[