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Useful Tropical Plants

Casuarina junghuhniana

Miq.

Casuarinaceae

+ Synonyms

Casuarina montana Lesch. Ex Miq.

Common Name: Mountain Ru

Casuarina junghuhniana
Tree rowing in Ambarita, Samosir
Photograph by: Christian Advs
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

General Information

Mountain ru is a fast-growing, dioecious tree with a fairly open crown; it can grow up to 25 metres tall[
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The tree is grown commercially for its wood and also for its ability to provide shelter, protect and conserve the soil[
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is also sometimes grown as an ornamental[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References


Range

Southeast Asia - Indonesia.

Habitat

Grows on the slopes of volcanoes at altitudes of 1,500 - 3,100 metres, but also at lower altitudes in dry places[
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is a pioneer species of deforested land such as rocky slopes and undisturbed areas[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Properties

Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitTree
Height25.00 m
PollinatorsWind
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of fairly moist tropical areas, usually found at higher elevations above 1,500 metres and as high as 3,100 metres, though it can succeed almost at sea level[
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Rainfall in its natural habitat is monsoonal, with a well-defined summer maximum and a reported annual range of 700 - 1,500 mm[
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month ranges from 25 - 28°c, whilst the mean minimum temperature of the coldest month ranges from 19 - 22°c[
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Succeeds on a wide range of soils, from light volcanic and sandy soils to heavy clays[
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is tolerant of a wide pH range, from 2.8 in acidic clays to 8.0 in limestone-derived soils[
303
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Established plants are drought-tolerant and can also survive prolonged periods of waterlogging[
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Plants growing in a plantation have shown tolerance of saline soil conditions[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
A fast growing species, seedlings can grow 3 metres per year for their first 2 - 3 years after planting out[
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Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Once trees reach a few metres in height they are fire resistant and resprout readily after being damaged by fire[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Weeding is necessary only during the first few years, after which the trees shed large amounts of branchlets to form a thick and dense mat of litter that suppresses weeds[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Trees respond well to coppicing and pollarding[
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. They produce strong root suckers[
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Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Trees are poor self-pruners, manual pruning in plantations up to a height of 2 - 2.5 metres is often necessary to make the plantations more accessible for general maintenance[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Plantation-grown trees can be harvested throughout the year. In Thailand, a harvesting cycle of 5 years is used for poles and fuel wood[
303
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. A mean annual increment of 10 - 15 cubic metres per hectare is generally obtainable[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The plant fixes atmospheric nitrogen by nodulation with actinomycete bacteria of the genus Frankia. The nodules are woody and perennial and can form large masses in the root system[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

None known

Agroforestry Uses:

Mountain ru is a pioneer species of deforested land such as rocky slopes and undisturbed areas. It has been used in revegetation and rehabilitation programmes dating back to the beginning of the 1900s. It is especially good as a pioneer on landslide-prone soils[
303
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is growing successfully in the low lying acid sulphate areas of Southeast Asia and North Australia[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
It is widely planted to improve soil fertility[
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Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The branches and foliage are burnt and the ash is spread on village gardens[
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Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Branchlets decompose slowly and provide good mulch[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
A suitable species for planting as a windbreak[
303
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Farmers plant the tree around fields as a live fence[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Other Uses

The reddish-brown wood is very hard but prone to splitting[
303
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World Agroforesty Centre
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Average durability of untreated wood is 4.5 years in direct contact with the ground, this can be increased to 15 years by treatment with creosote preservative[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is a popular source of construction piles and for fish traps. Also used for pole production[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The wood can be used to make hardboard in a mixture with Dipterocarpus species[
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Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The wood is suitable raw material for kraft pulp[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The wood is highly suitable for firewood and charcoal production. The energy from the charcoal is 34 500 kJ/kg, which is among the highest among firewood species[
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]..

Propagation

Seed -

Mature seeds germinate readily without pre-treatment. Germination is good and uniform, completed after 10 days. The germination rate is 50-60%, decreasing rapidly unless kept in dry cool storage.

Propagation is by seed, shoot cuttings or air layering. Seed is sown onto germination beds. Seedlings are pricked out into polythene bags when 3-5 cm tall. For mass propagation, shoot cuttings are more suitable than air layering. Under favourable conditions seedlings attain 25-30 cm in height within 3 months.

Inoculation of the seedlings or cuttings with effective strains of Frankia bacteria is recommended when C. junghuhniana is introduced into a new area
Seed storage behaviour is orthodox; can keep viability for up to 1 year at room temperature. 1-1.8 million seeds/kg
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2019-10-15. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Casuarina+junghuhniana>

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