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Useful Tropical Plants

Canna indica

L.

Cannaceae

+ Synonyms

Canna achiras Gillies ex D.Don

Canna altensteinii Bouché

Canna amabilis T.Koyama & Nob.Tanaka

Canna ascendens Ciciar.

Canna aurantiaca Roscoe

Canna aureovittata Lodd.

Canna barbadica Bouché

Canna bidentata Bertol.

Canna bifida Roem. & Schult.

Canna brasiliensis Roscoe ex Spreng.

Canna carnea Roscoe

Canna cearensis Huber

Canna chinensis Willd.

Canna cinnabarina Bouché

Canna coccinea Mill.

Canna commutata Bouché

Canna compacta Roscoe

Canna concinna Bouché

Canna crocea Roem. & Schult.

Canna densifolia Bouché

Canna discolor Lindl.

Canna edulis Ker Gawl.

Canna ehrenbergii Bouché

Canna elegans Raf.

Canna ellipticifolia Stokes

Canna esculenta Loudon

Canna exigua Bouché

Canna eximia Bouché ex Horan.

Canna flavescens Link

Canna floribunda Bouché

Canna formosa Bouché

Canna fulgida Bouché

Canna heliconiifolia Bouché

Canna humilis Bouché

Canna juncea Retz.

Canna laeta Bouché

Canna lagunensis Lindl.

Canna lambertii Lindl. ex Ker Gawl.

Canna lanuginosa Roscoe

Canna leptochila Bouché

Canna limbata Roscoe

Canna lutea Larrañaga

Canna lutea Mill.

Canna macrophylla Horan.

Canna maculata (Hook.) Link

Canna maxima Lodd. ex Roscoe

Canna montana Blume

Canna moritziana Bouché

Canna nepalensis Bouché

Canna occidentalis Ker Gawl.

Canna orientalis Bouché

Canna orientalis Roscoe

Canna pallida Roscoe

Canna patens (Aiton) Roscoe

Canna pentaphylla D.Dietr.

Canna platyphylla Nees & Mart.

Canna plurituberosa T.Koyama & Nob.Tanaka

Canna poeppigii Bouché

Canna polyclada Wawra

Canna polymorpha Bouché

Canna portoricensis Bouché

Canna pruinosa Hoffmanns

Canna pulchra Bouché ex Horan.

Canna pulchra Hassk.

Canna recurvata Bouché

Canna roscoeana Bouché

Canna rotundifolia André

Canna rubra Willd.

Canna rubricaulis Link

Canna sanctae-rosae Kraenzl.

Canna sanguinea Bouché

Canna sanguinea Warsz. ex Otto & A.Dietr.

Canna saturate-rubra Bouché ex K.Koch

Canna schubertii Horan.

Canna seleriana Kraenzl.

Canna sellowii Bouché

Canna speciosa Hegetschw.

Canna speciosa Roscoe ex Sims

Canna spectabilis Bouché

Canna sulphurea Bouché

Canna surinamensis Bouché

Canna tenuiflora Bouché ex A.Dietr.

Canna texensis Regel

Canna textoria Noronha

Canna thyrsiflora Hegetschw.

Canna tinei Tod.

Canna variabilis Willd.

Canna variegata Besser

Canna variegata Bouché

Canna variegatifolia Ciciar.

Canna ventricosa Bouché

Canna warszewiczii A.Dietr.

Canna xalapensis Bouché

Cannacorus indicus (L.) Medik.

Cannacorus ovatus Moench

Distemon brasiliensis (Roscoe ex Spreng.) Bouché

Distemon grandis Horan.

Xyphostylis lutea (Mill.) Raf.

Common Name: Indian Shot

Canna indica
Flowering plants
Photograph by: Biswarup Ganguly
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
Canna indica Canna indica Canna indica Canna indica Canna indica Canna indica Canna indica Canna indica

General Information

Canna indica is a perennial plant producing clumps of stems 150 - 300cm tall, with large leaves up to 50cm long and 25cm wide. The stems arise from a large, thick and tuber-like rhizome[
331
Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 - 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/
]. With its large leaves sheathing a central stem, the plant has the appearance somewhat like a small banana plant.
The plant provides food (especially the root), medicines and a range of commodities. It is often cultivated on a home scale for these uses, especially in S. America and southeast Asia; whilst it is grown on a small scale in Australia as a commercial source of arrowroot. The plant is widely grown through the tropics and subtropics as an ornamental, being valued especially for its flowers and attractive leaves[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
331
Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 - 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/

Range

S. America - Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, northwards through C. America to Mexico and Texas; through the Caribbean to Florida, S. Carolina

Habitat

Mostly in moist or wet thickets, or along streams, frequent in secondary growth, often invading cultivated ground, especially coffee plantations, at elevations from near sea level to 1,900 metres[
331
Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 - 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitPerennial
Height1.50 m
PollinatorsHummingbirds
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the moist tropics, where it can be found at elevations up to 2,000 metres. It can also be cultivated in the subtropical and warm temperate zones. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 12 - 32°c. Top growth can be killed by even light frosts, but the rootstock can survive several degrees of frost[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,000 - 4,500mm, but tolerates 500 - 5,000mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Requires a deep rich well-drained soil in a sunny position[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
302
Title
Tropical Ornamentals; A Guide
Publication
 
Author
Whistler. W. Arthur.
Publisher
Timber Press Inc. Oregon.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-88192-448-2
Description
An excellent little guide to some of the more commonly cultivated ornamental plants of the Tropics, often giving some information on the plants other uses.
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 7.5, tolerating 5 - 8[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. The plant has large leaves and dislikes windy conditions since this can tear the leaves to shreds[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
The plant is widely grown as an ornamental, and selected forms are cultivated for their edible roots.
Plants are fast-growing, and can produce a flowering shoot in their first year of growth from seed[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
].
Rhizome cuttings develop into harvestable plants in 6 - 8 months from planting[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Plants grown from rhizome tips can be harvested 4 months after planting, but harvesting after 8 months gives higher yields, because then the rhizomes have swollen to their maximum. Rhizomes should not be allowed to become much older than 10 months as they become tough and less suitable for consumption or starch production[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
A rhizome is considered mature when the triangular slit in the outer scale leaf of the rhizome has turned purple[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Rhizome yield ranges from 23 tonnes per hectare at 4 months; to 45 - 50 tonnes at 8 months; to 85 tonnes after a year. Reported starch yields are 4 - 10 tonnes, exceptionally 17.5 tonnes per hectare[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]
Plants grown for ornamental purposes start flowering a few months after planting in tropical regions, and flowers continue to appear as long as the plant lives. In cooler regions, where frost can be expected, the rhizomes should be lifted and overwintered at about 7°c[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Slugs love the young growth in spring and can cause serious damage to plants[
233
Title
Perennial Garden Plants
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
Year
1990
ISBN
0 460 86048 8
Description
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
].

Edible Uses

Root - sometimes eaten raw, but usually consumed after being cooked in various ways. The very young tubers are eaten cooked, they are sweet but fibrous[
97
Title
The Ethno-Botany of Pre-Columbian Peru.
Publication
 
Author
Towle. M. A.
Publisher
Aldine Publishing Co. Chicago.
Year
1961
ISBN
 
Description
A very interesting book covering quite a lot of information on plant uses in S. America although many of the plants are not suitable for temperate areas.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. In Peru they are baked for up to 12 hours, after which time they become a white, translucent, fibrous and somewhat mucilaginous mass with a sweetish taste[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. Roots contain about 25% starch[
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
].
The roots are the source of 'canna starch', which is used as an arrowroot[
97
Title
The Ethno-Botany of Pre-Columbian Peru.
Publication
 
Author
Towle. M. A.
Publisher
Aldine Publishing Co. Chicago.
Year
1961
ISBN
 
Description
A very interesting book covering quite a lot of information on plant uses in S. America although many of the plants are not suitable for temperate areas.
,
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
]. It is obtained by rasping the root to a pulp, washing and straining to get rid of the fibres and then drying[
2
Title
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Hedrick. U. P.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
]. Alternatively, the roots can be peeled, dried and then ground into a flour[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The flour consists of more than 90% starch and about 10% sugar (glucose and sucrose). The starch produced is a shiny yellowish powder with very large (125 - 145 µm 60 µm) irregularly shaped grains. It is highly soluble and easily digestible. After cooking, the starch is glossy and transparent[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Young shoots are cooked and eaten as a green vegetable[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
].
The leaves are used for wrapping other foods[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].

There is one report that this plant has an edible fruit[
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
] but this is somewhat dubious, the fruit is a dry capsule containing the very hard seeds[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. The immature seeds are cooked in tortillas[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
].

Medicinal

The plant is used in the treatment of women's complaints[
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
].

The root is diaphoretic and diuretic[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
,
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
]. It is used in the treatment of fevers[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. A decoction of the root, combined with fermented rice, is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea and amenorrhoea[
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
].
An infusion of the rhizome is said to be febrifuge and stimulant , whilst a decoction is said to be diaphoretic and diuretic[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
]. The rhizome is also made into an emollient cataplasm[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
].
It is quite probable that the reports above for the uses of the rhizome and the roots actually refer to the same part of the plant, though it is also possible that the rhizome refers to the swollen tuberous root, whilst root refers to the thinner roots[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

The leaves are diuretic and emollient[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
].

The leaves and the powdered seeds are mixed and used to treat dermatoses[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
].

The seeds are demulcent. They are mixed with water in a poultice which is placed on the forehead to remedy headaches[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
]. They are ground into a powder and used as an anti-infective agent or as a treatment for itches, persistent sores and 'bush yaws'[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
].

Other Uses

The plant yields a fibre - from the stem? - it is a jute substitute[
114
Title
The Plant Wealth of Iraq.
Publication
 
Author
Chakravarty. H. L.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
It is surprising how many of these plants can be grown in Britain. A very readable book on the useful plants of Iraq.
]. A fibre obtained from the leaves is used for making paper[
189
Title
Plant Fibres for Papermaking.
Publication
 
Author
Bell. L. A.
Publisher
Liliaceae Press
Year
1988
ISBN
-
Description
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
]. The leaves are harvested in late summer after the plant has flowered, they are scraped to remove the outer skin and are then soaked in water for 2 hours prior to cooking. The fibres are cooked for 24 hours with lye and then beaten in a blender. They make a light tan brown paper[
189
Title
Plant Fibres for Papermaking.
Publication
 
Author
Bell. L. A.
Publisher
Liliaceae Press
Year
1988
ISBN
-
Description
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
].

The large leaves are sometimes used as plates[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

A purple dye is obtained from the seed[
114
Title
The Plant Wealth of Iraq.
Publication
 
Author
Chakravarty. H. L.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
It is surprising how many of these plants can be grown in Britain. A very readable book on the useful plants of Iraq.
]. It is not very permanent[
459
Title
The Useful Plants of the Island of Guam
Publication
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium Vol 9
Author
Safford W.E.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Smithsonian Institute; Washington.
Year
1905
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive, if rather dated, guide to the plants of Guam. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Smoke from the burning leaves is said to be insecticidal[
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
].

The hard seeds are used as the 'rattle' in rattles[
302
Title
Tropical Ornamentals; A Guide
Publication
 
Author
Whistler. W. Arthur.
Publisher
Timber Press Inc. Oregon.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-88192-448-2
Description
An excellent little guide to some of the more commonly cultivated ornamental plants of the Tropics, often giving some information on the plants other uses.
]. They are also used as beads to make rosaries and necklaces[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
521
Title
Useful Plants of the Siona and Secoya Indians of Eastern Ecuador.
Publication
Fieldiana Botany New Series No. 15
Author
Vickers W.T.; Plowman T.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Field Museum of Natural History; USA.
Year
1984
ISBN
0015 - 0746
Description
Very terse, but it gives the uses of a large number of species. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Propagation

Seed - the different species in this genus often hybridize and so seed cannot be relied upon to breed true. If growing from seed, pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water and sow in the seeds 2 - 5cm deep in individual pots in light shade at 20°c[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
138
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 3.
Publication
 
Author
Bird. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1989
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.
]. Scarifying the seed by carefully removing a small part of the outer shell (being careful not to harm the seed itself), to enable it to imbibe water can speed germination, especially if the seed has not swollen after being soaked[
124
Title
The Garden. Volume 113.
Publication
 
Author
RHS.
Publisher
Royal Horticultural Society
Year
1988
ISBN
-
Description
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS, including details on Podophyllum, Canna and Protea species.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. The seed usually germinates in 3 - 9 weeks[
138
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 3.
Publication
 
Author
Bird. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1989
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.
]. Grow the plants on until large enough to plant out.
Division of the root clump as the plant comes into growth. Each portion must have at least one growing point. Pot up the divisions and grow them on until they are well established and then plant them out.
Root cuttings.

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