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Useful Tropical Plants

Canarium hirsutum

Willd.

Burseraceae

+ Synonyms

Canariopsis altissima Miq.

Canariopsis hirsuta Miq.

Canariopsis hispida Miq.

Canarium ahernianum Merr.

Canarium altissimum Blume

Canarium bersamifolium G.Perkins

Canarium costulatum Elmer

Canarium ellipsoideum Merr.

Canarium emarginatum Engl. ex Koord.

Canarium greshoffii Koord.

Canarium hispidum Blume

Canarium leeuwenii H.J.Lam

Canarium longiflorescens Elmer ex Merr.

Canarium multijugum H.J.Lam

Canarium multipinnatum Llanos

Canarium nervosum Elmer

Canarium oxygonum Quisumb. & Merr.

Canarium palawense Lauterb.

Canarium racemosum Merr.

Canarium radlkoferi G.Perkins

Canarium riedelianum Engl.

Canarium robustum Merr.

Canarium subcordatum Ridl.

Canarium warburgianum G.Perkins

Pimela altissima Blume

Pimela hirsuta Blume

Pimela hispida Blume

Common Name:

Canarium hirsutum
Drawing of the leaves and flowers
Photograph by: Rumphius, G.E., Herbarium amboinense, vol. 2: p. 157, t. 51 (1741)
Creative Commons License

General Information

Canarium hirsutum is a tree that usually grows from 10 - 25 metres tall, with occasionaly specimens to 48 metres recorded. The straight bole can be 20 - 60cm in diameter, exceptionally to 200cm, sometimes with very small buttresses[
334
Title
Flora of Peninsula Malaysia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.tfbc.frim.gov.my
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
In the process of being assembled (15/07/09), it is currently a series of check sheets giving species name, brief description, habitat and high quality photos of the plants.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
,
701
Title
Asean Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://211.114.21.20/tropicalplant/index.jsp
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details, with photos, of many of the plants growing in the tropical forests of southeast Asia. Gives some details of plant uses along with a description of the plant and its range.
].
The plant produces a hard resin, which is harvested from wild trees for local use[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. The plant also has local medicinal uses.

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet

Range

Southeast Asia - Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

Habitat

Rather common in dense primary forest, rarely in the more open, secondary formations; growing in wet to dry localities, mostly at low elevations but rarely ascending to 1,800 metres[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Properties

Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitTree
Height20.00 m
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details



A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of stomach troubles[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Other Uses

The tree is the source of Dammar Sengai, one of the hardest Malayan resins, used for varnishes[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. The resin is produced rather abundantly[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
Dammar is a hard resin, obtained from various trees of Southeast Asia. Traditionally, it is used for purposes such as caulking boats and baskets, as an adhesive, a medicine, as a fuel for torches and sometimes in foods. Dammar has many commercial applications, though many of these uses are less important nowadays due to the advent of synthetic materials. Commercially, it is an ingredient of inks, lacquers, oil paints, varnishes etc, and is used as a glazing agent in foods[
891
Title
Gums, Resins and Latexes of Plant Origins.
Publication
Non-Wood Forest Products 6.
Author
Coppen J.J.W.
Website
http://www.fao.org/docrep/
Publisher
FAO, United Nations; Rome
Year
1995
ISBN
92-5-103757-4
Description
A handbook published by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, it provides good basic information on the sources and uses of the various gums, resins and latexes. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
Harvesting of the resin commences when the bole is around 25cm in diameter (approx 20 years old). Triangular cuts (becoming circular with age) are arranged in vertical rows around the trunk. The cuts are several centimetres wide at first, but become enlarged at every tapping and eventually become holes of 15 - 20cm in depth and width. The average number of holes for a tree about 30 metres tall and 60 - 80cm in diameter is 9 - 11 in each of 4 - 5 vertical rows. For the higher holes, the tapper climbs the tree supported by a rattan belt and using the lower holes as footholds.
The exuded resin is allowed to dry on the tree before it is collected. The frequency with which the tree is visited to refreshen the cut varies from once a week to once a month, depending on how far the tree is from the village. Tapping can continue for 30 years[
891
Title
Gums, Resins and Latexes of Plant Origins.
Publication
Non-Wood Forest Products 6.
Author
Coppen J.J.W.
Website
http://www.fao.org/docrep/
Publisher
FAO, United Nations; Rome
Year
1995
ISBN
92-5-103757-4
Description
A handbook published by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, it provides good basic information on the sources and uses of the various gums, resins and latexes. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

The wood is said to be soft to rather hard[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
The wood of most species in the genus Canarium is usually soft to moderately hard and probably not very durable in exposed positions. It is not, therefore of any great commercial value and is only used locally or not at all[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Propagation

Seed - we have no specific information for this species but seeds of this genus generally have a hard seed coat and germinate erratically. Filing away some of the seed coat to allow moisture to enter more readily, without damaging the seed, will encourage a faster and more even germination[
658
Title
Food Plants of Papua New Guinea
Publication
 
Author
French. B.R.
Publisher
Author.
Year
2006
ISBN
 
Description
Published on-line in PDF format, this book contains information on several hundred New Guinea food plants.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2020-08-08. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Canarium+hirsutum>

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