Bruguiera australis A.Cunn. ex Arn.
Bruguiera eriopetala Wight & Arn.
Bruguiera oxyphylla Miq.
Bruguiera parietosa Griff.
Rhizophora eriopetala Steud.
Rhizophora polandra Blanco
Rhizophora sexangula Lour.
Small trees growing in native habitat
Photograph by: Ria Tan
Bruguiera sexangula is an evergreen shrub or a tree that can grow up to 33 metres tall. The bole can be up to 65cm (exceptionally to 80cm) in diameter with buttresses up to 1 metre high and pneumatophores (breathing roots) up to 45cm[
Fuelwood, either directly or after its conversion to charcoal, is probably the main use of this plant, especially at the local leve, though it is also harvested from the wild as a food, medicine and source of tanninl[
Although widespread, this species is uncommon throughout its range, where it is restricted to the middle intertidal regions in larger riverine estuaries and tidal swamps. It is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development, and there has been an estimated 21% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. The plant is classified, therefore, as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
E. Asia - coastal areas from India and Sri Lanka through southern Asia to New Guinea and New Britain
Inland parts of mangrove forests that are not frequently submerged, also growing along river banks and occasionally on sandy shores. Grows in soils with water that is less saline than seawater, preferring easily drained soils[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
Plants are usually found on sandy soils in the wild, but do also succeed on clay[
Harvesting of the wood for fuel is usually done manually with axes or matchets, which minimizes disturbance to the mangrove[
Young trees from short-term rotations are preferred as a fuel crop[
The fruit is sometimes used as an ingredient in the masticatory betel quid[
The fruit is cooked, then soaked overnight and eaten, although it is very astringent[
A flavouring is obtained from the bark[
The astringent fruit is used as a treatment against shingles[
The roots and leaves are used as a treatment for burns[
The bark is used as a source of tannin[
]. Although the bark is thinner than that obtained from Rhizophora spp., it contains more tannin[
An adhesive is obtained from the bark[
The wood often has an attractive colour. It is straight-grained, fine-textured, heavy, very hard and very strong. It is difficult to saw and work, though it finishes well. It is non-durable to moderately durable when exposed to weather or in contact with the ground. The logs shrink and check excessively in seasoning. In the trade it is not distinguished from Rhizophora wood. The wood is often of too small a dimension to be used for much other than fuel, but that obtained from well-grown trees is suitable for poles and house construction. It is traditionally also used for fishing stakes[
The wood makes a good fuel and is also used to make charcoal[
]. Wood from immature plants and branches is usually used for this purpose[
]. The energy value of the wood is about 20,200 kJ/kg[
Seed - in a trial in the Philippines seed germinated 5 - 10 days after sowing[
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