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Useful Tropical Plants

Bruguiera cylindrica

(L.) Blume

Rhizophoraceae

+ Synonyms

Bruguiera caryophyllaeoides (J.F.Gmel.) Blume

Bruguiera caryophylloides (Burm.f.) Blume

Bruguiera malabarica Arn.

Rhizophora caryophylloides Burm.f.

Rhizophora cylindrica L.

Common Name:

Bruguiera cylindrica
Given time, the tree can attain fairly large dimensions
Photograph by: Ria Tan
Creative Commons License
Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera cylindrica

General Information

Bruguiera cylindrica is an evergreen shrub or a tree that can grow up to 23 metres tall, though it is usually rather smaller. The bole can be up to 20 - 30cm in diameter with small buttresses up to 1 metre high and lots of pneumatophores (breathing roots)[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
,
653
Title
Plants of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.asianplant.net/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Excellent site with brief information on the plant, its range, habitat and uses, plus phots of specimens, close-ops of flowers and leaves etc,
].
This species is valued especially for its wood, which is considered an excellent fuel and source of charcoal. It is sometimes also harvested as a food and source of tannin. Usually harvested from the wild, it is occasionally also planted, especially as a fuel crop, in reforestation areas[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
Although widespread and common within its range, like all mangroves this species is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development. There has been an estimated 24% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. However, it has a high rejuvenation rate, and is often one of the first species to return after removal of mangrove habitat. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of their range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. The plant, therefore, is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet

Range

E. Asia - coastal areas from India and Sri Lanka through southeast Asia to New Guinea and northeast Australia.

Habitat

Higher parts of the mangrove forest by the coast, where flooding is occasional only, up to about 20 metres above sea level. It gives way to other trees where the soil is better drained, and is usually absent from mangroves along rivers[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Edibility Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height15.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsButterflies, Insects
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details


Tolerant of some shade[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. Succeeds on sandy and on clay soils[
653
Title
Plants of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.asianplant.net/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Excellent site with brief information on the plant, its range, habitat and uses, plus phots of specimens, close-ops of flowers and leaves etc,
]. One of the most tolerant species of anaerobic soil conditions, it grows gregariously on stiff clay soils in the mangrove swamp. However, the very poorly aerated soil habitually occupied by this species makes it highly dependent upon its pneumatophores for an adequate supply of oxygen, and also particularly susceptible to prolonged submersion[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Since the tree is such a prolific seed-bearer, a healthy forest normally regenerates, even after clear-felling. Wildlings may be collected and used for planting, but regeneration has, so far, been left to nature in most cases[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The plant is viviparous - the seeds germinate and develop their root while still attached to the tree. After the seedlings are released they fall vertically into the mud and immediately become established[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The tree is able to establish itself in newly formed soils along the coast that are unsuitable for other mangroves. It can form pure stands above high tide level that can be extremely dense and may contain 55,000 - 70,000 stems per hectare[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
]. Heavy early thinnings are necessary to increase the rate of growth[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
This species has the dubious honour of being the slowest growing of any commercial tree species in Malaya. From
seed it takes around 11 - 12 years to attain a height of 6 metres; around 16 - 17 years to attain 9 metres with a bole 5cm in diameter; and around 60 years to attain a diameter of 30cm. Its rotation should be longer than the 30 years now accepted as an average for mangrove forest in Malays[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
Harvesting is done manually with an axe or matchet. This minimizes disturbance to the mangrove. Young trees from short-term rotations are preferred[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Average annual wood production ranges from 2- 16 cubic metres per hectare[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Edible Uses

Young hypocotyls are occasionally boiled and eaten as a vegetable or preserve, though mainly in times of famine[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The young radicles are occasionally eaten with sugar and coconut[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Young shoots are served as a salad[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Medicinal

None known

Agroforestry Uses:

This species is able to establish itself in newly formed soils along the coast that are unsuitable for other mangroves - it can thus stabilize the soils and bring about conditions to allow other trees to become established[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Other Uses

The bark is said to be of some value as a local source of tannins[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. However, it is thin and of too low a yield for commercial use[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

The heartwood is reddish to reddish-brown upon exposure. The wood is hard, very heavy and strong. It is straight grained and fine textured. The logs shrink and check excessively in seasoning, while the wood is easy to work and finishes well. It is non-durable when exposed to weather or in contact with the ground. Valued more as a fuel, though it is also used for purposes such as temporary constructions[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
]. Fisherman say that the wood has a peculiar odour which frightens away fish; and many do not like to use it for making fishtraps[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
The wood is commonly used for fuel and for making charcoal[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Propagation

Seed -
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2018-07-20. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Bruguiera+cylindrica>

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