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Useful Tropical Plants

Brachiaria brizantha

(A.Rich.) Stapf

Poaceae


Brachiaria decumbens is a closely related east African species which has been introduced as a pasture plant throughout the tropics. It is distinguished from Brachiaria brizantha by its stoloniferous habit, flat raceme rhachis and herbaceous superior glume and inferior lemma, but the two species intergrade and some of the cultivated forms are difficult to assign. Glume and lemma texture seem to be the best and decumbent habit the least reliable diagnostic characters[
308
Title
Flora Zambesiaca
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online flora of plants from the Zambezi River basin. It lists a number of the plant uses as well as the habitats and botanical descriptions of the plants.
].
The genera Brachiaria and Urochloa are closely related, and the two are united by some authors. See Veldkamp, Taxon 45 (1986) 319. However, this unification is not accepted by all authors - see Flora of China Vol 22 pp520-523 2006. We are following the treatment in the Flora of China and the Kew 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families', and treating the two genera as distinct[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Brachiaria and Urochloa are distinguished mainly by habit, Urochloa having rather more flattened, cuspidate spikelets enclosing a pronounced mucro from the upper lemma. The different spikelet orientation is also characteristic, though not obvious when the spikelets are paired. In Urochloa the lower glume faces outward, whereas in Brachiaria it lies against the rachis[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
]..

+ Synonyms

Brachiaria gangangalaensis Vanderyst

Brachiaria manzonzoensis Vanderyst

Panicum brizanthum A.Rich.

Urochloa brizantha (A.Rich.) R.D.Webster

Common Name: Bread Grass

No Image.

General Information

Brachiaria brizantha is an evergreen, perennial grass producing a cluster of stout, erect to ascending culms 55 - 200cm tall from a rhizomatous rootstock[
332
Title
The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
Burkil. H. M.
Publisher
Royal Botanic Gardens; Kew.
Year
1985 - 2004
ISBN
 
Description
Brief descriptions and details of the uses of over 4,000 plants. A superb, if terse, resource, it is also available electronically on the Web - see http://www.aluka.org/
,
1140
Title
Brachiaria, Urochloa (Gramineae-Paniceae) in Malesia
Publication
Blumea 41 pp 413-437 1996
Author
Veldkamp J.F.
Publisher
 
Year
1996
ISBN
 
Description
A paper transferring various Brachiaria species to Urochloa, it also gives information on plant uses.
].
The plant is used as a ground cover in tree plantations and to stabilize the soil.

Known Hazards

The plant (when used as the main foodstuff), has been known to cause photosensitization in sheep and goats, though in Brazil, where the grass is widely used in pastures, no photosensitization effects on cattle have been observed[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
375
Title
Grassland Species - Profiles
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/Default.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse information on over 650 species of plants that grow in grassland, including trees, shrubs and perennial plants as well as grasses. Gives a brief description of the plant, its range and habitat and some of its uses.
].

Botanical References

308
Title
Flora Zambesiaca
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online flora of plants from the Zambezi River basin. It lists a number of the plant uses as well as the habitats and botanical descriptions of the plants.
,
1140
Title
Brachiaria, Urochloa (Gramineae-Paniceae) in Malesia
Publication
Blumea 41 pp 413-437 1996
Author
Veldkamp J.F.
Publisher
 
Year
1996
ISBN
 
Description
A paper transferring various Brachiaria species to Urochloa, it also gives information on plant uses.

Range

Africa - Gambia to Eritrea and Somalia, south to S. Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles; Arabian Peninsula - Yemen

Habitat

Roadsides, coral sand; at elevations up to 1,700 metres[
1140
Title
Brachiaria, Urochloa (Gramineae-Paniceae) in Malesia
Publication
Blumea 41 pp 413-437 1996
Author
Veldkamp J.F.
Publisher
 
Year
1996
ISBN
 
Description
A paper transferring various Brachiaria species to Urochloa, it also gives information on plant uses.
]. Grassland valleys and open woodlands at elevations up to 3,000 metres[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].

Properties

Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Perennial
Height0.70 m
PollinatorsWind
Cultivation StatusCultivated

Cultivation Details

Brachiaria brizantha is found wild mainly in the wetter tropics[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. It is well adapted to the humid and sub-humid tropics where it can withstand dry seasons of up to 5 months, it can also succeed in cultivation in warm temperate areas[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 25 - 35°c, but can tolerate 15 - 38°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It is tolerant of some frost, though exact details are not known[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 750 - 2,500mm, but tolerates 500 - 4,000mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Prefers a sunny position, but is tolerant of light to moderate shade. Grows well on a range of soils including sandy and acid soils, though does not tolerate poorly drained soils[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The plant is fairly resistant to drought[
1140
Title
Brachiaria, Urochloa (Gramineae-Paniceae) in Malesia
Publication
Blumea 41 pp 413-437 1996
Author
Veldkamp J.F.
Publisher
 
Year
1996
ISBN
 
Description
A paper transferring various Brachiaria species to Urochloa, it also gives information on plant uses.
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6, tolerating 4.5 - 7[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Some varieties of this plant, including the cultivar 'Marandu', are resistant to the insect spittlebug[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Most forms of the plant do not tolerate fire well[
375
Title
Grassland Species - Profiles
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/Default.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse information on over 650 species of plants that grow in grassland, including trees, shrubs and perennial plants as well as grasses. Gives a brief description of the plant, its range and habitat and some of its uses.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

None known

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant makes a very good ground cover, and is used to protect the soil in tree crop plantations[
1140
Title
Brachiaria, Urochloa (Gramineae-Paniceae) in Malesia
Publication
Blumea 41 pp 413-437 1996
Author
Veldkamp J.F.
Publisher
 
Year
1996
ISBN
 
Description
A paper transferring various Brachiaria species to Urochloa, it also gives information on plant uses.
]. It is used in India and Australia to protect the soil from erosion[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].

Other Uses

None known

Propagation

Seed -
Division of culms or root pieces[
375
Title
Grassland Species - Profiles
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/Default.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse information on over 650 species of plants that grow in grassland, including trees, shrubs and perennial plants as well as grasses. Gives a brief description of the plant, its range and habitat and some of its uses.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2019-08-23. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Brachiaria+brizantha>

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