Some of the African material referred to as Bothriochloa pertusa may in fact be the morphologically similar, but more robust, Bothriochloa insculpta[
Amphilophis pertusa (L.) Stapf
Andropogon armillaris Willd. ex Steud.
Andropogon pertusus (L.) Willd.
Bothriochloa nana W.Z.Fang
Dichanthium ischaemum pertusum (L.) Roberty
Dichanthium pertusum (L.) Clayton
Elionurus pertusus Nees ex Steud.
Holcus pertusus L.
Lepeocercis pertusa (L.) Hassk.
Sorghum pertusum (L.) Kuntze
Bothriochloa pertusa is a perennial grass with more or less erect culms 30 - 60cm long. The plant produces stolons, and forms new roots where leaf nodes touch the ground, gradually spreading to form a mat of growth.
The plant is cultivated in soil stabilization and reclamation projects and is also grown as a lawn and amenity grass.
Tropical and subtropical areas from Madagascar through the Indian Ocean, southern Asia from Afghanistan to Indonesia, N. Australia, western Pacific
Disturbed areas and along roads in notophyll vineforest, deciduous vine thicket, Eucalypt woodland, beach scrub and wooded grassland at elevations up to 760 metres in northern Australia[
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Bothriochloa pertusa grows in tropical and subtropical areas, preferring areas where the rainfall is predominantly during the warm season. It can be found both native and naturalised over a wide latitudinal range, from near the equator to latitude 28°, and at elevations from sea level to more than 2,000 metres - this equates to a range in average annual temperature from about 17 - 27°c[
]. There is little growth once temperatures drop to 3 - 4°c and, although tops and stolons are killed by frost, the plant can recover, producing new growth from its tufted crowns along the stolons providing that grass temperatures do not fall much below about -6°c[
]. It is most commonly found in areas with a mean annual rainfall ranging from 600 - 900mm, but can tolerate a range from 500 - 2,000mm[
Prefers a sunny position, though it also succeeds in light shade. It does not grow well when shaded by taller pasture plants or weeds[
]. It grows well on neutral to alkaline, cracking clay soils in India, but also does well on well-drained, coarse to fine-textured soils with a pH as low as 5.0[
]. It is most competitive on infertile to moderately fertile soils[
]. The plantt can withstand moderate drought, though prolonged drought will substantially reduce the basal area of the stand - regrowth is usually rapid when growing conditions become favourable[
]. The plant is able to withstand short periods of waterlogging, though prolonged waterlogging will kill or reduce its basal area[
The plant has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in some areas. It has been classified as invasive in open, disturbed sites such as pastures, savannahs, and along roadsides in Hawaii[
]. It has no rhizomes, however, and is easily killed by cultivation so is unlikely to become a weed in cropping areas[
]. The fluffy seeds adhere to animal fur and thus aid the spread of the plant[
]. It is especially likely to colonize poorer soils where other grasses may not grow, particularly when management favours spread of the species[
The plant can survive fire, though severe fire can thin a stand[
The plant is used mainly as a forage for ruminants, but is also suitable for erosion control and soil conservation projects; stabilizing and revegetating mine waste sites; lining floodways; and creating lawns, recreation areas and playing fields[
It is an effective colonizing grass which provides good ground cover in reasonably sunny positions[
Seed - there is a high level of dormancy in freshly harvested seed, which breaks down after 4 - 9 months storage. The seed is best sown on or near the surface of a fine, clean seedbed, at 1 - 3 kilos per hectare. To avoid erosion resulting from cultivation, it can be sown into the ashes following fire, although this results in poorer establishment. It germinates quickly and establishes readily[
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