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Useful Tropical Plants

Andrographis paniculata

(Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees

Acanthaceae

+ Synonyms

Andrographis subspathulata C.B.Clarke

Common Name: Green Chireta

Andrographis paniculata
Flowering plant, growing by a tree trunk
Photograph by: Ks.mini
Creative Commons License
Andrographis paniculata Andrographis paniculata Andrographis paniculata Andrographis paniculata

General Information

Green chireta is a perennial herb growing up to 80cm tall.
Widely used as a medicinal herb, the plant is cultivated in many tropical areas of the world and has become naturalized in many of these areas[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The plant is also sometimes grown for its ornamental value[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.

Range

E. Asia - India.

Habitat

Village groves, roadsides, waste places, open sandy locations and fields, but also in monsoon and teak forest receiving only 10-20% of full light, at elevations from sea level to 1,600 metres[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Properties

Weed PotentialYes
Medicinal Rating *  *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitPerennial
Height0.80 m
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 1,600 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 20 - 30°c, but can tolerate 14 - 38°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 2,000 - 3,000mm, but tolerates 1,500 - 4,000mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Prefers a position in light shade, but ca tolerate deeper shade and sunnier positions[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
The plant has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in many areas of the tropics[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
In shading experiments, the optimal proved to be 20% shade with average dry-matter production of 13.2 g per 5-month-old plant[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

Green chireta has a long history of traditional medicinal use in India, various parts of South-East Asia, Central America and the Caribbean[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The roots and leaves are considered to be alterative, anthelmintic, bitter, febrifuge, stomachic and tonic[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. There has been a large amount of research into the effects of this plant, several medically active compounds have been identified with a wide range of effective actions[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The aerial parts of the plant contain a large number of diterpenes, whilst the presence of flavones in the root has also been reported[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Extracts and purified diterpenes and flavonoids have been investigated for a multitude of pharmacological effects. Trials using the leaf extract have concluded that the powdered leaves have the capacity to significantly shorten the duration of common colds and that the leaves can be as effective as paracetamol in relieving the fever and sore throat of people with pharyngotonsilitis [
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]
The leaves have also been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory effect and also significantly inhibit oedema[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]
An ethanol extract of the leaves stimulates both antigen-specific and nonspecific immune responses more than the purified leaf extracts. An ethanol extract has also shown significant antipyretic activity.
A standardized leaf extract exhibits significant antipyretic properties and is an effective analgesic[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The crude water extract of the leaves, as well as the semi-purified n-butanol and aqueous fractions, have shown significant hypotensive activity[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. In one trial, a 10% infusion of the herb applied intravenously at 1 ml/kg bodyweight reduced the blood pressure by 6-10 mm Hg in 10-20 seconds[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
An extract of the leaves has also been shown to lower cholesterol levels, whilst antithrombotic effects were also observed. It is believed that these effects might be at least partially due to flavones present in the extract[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Administered intraperitoneally, the diterpenes andrographiside and neoandrographolide (found in the leaves) have a significant protective effect on the liver.
An extract of the leaves has shown antidiarrhoeal activity[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The diterpenes andrographolide and neoandrographolide isolated from the alcoholic extract showed potent antisecretory activity against Escherichia coli enterotoxin induced secretions. Various compounds have shown significant anti-ulcer properties. It is suggested that this effect is due to the antisecretory activity and protective effect on the gastric mucosa[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Oral administration of 20 mg of the dry leaf powder for 60 days has an antifertility effect in males[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The alcoholic extract of the rhizomes exhibits good in vitro anthelmintic activity against Ascaris lumbricoides[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Neoandrographolide, isolated from the leaves, exhibits significant antimalarial activity[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]
Dehydroandrographolide succinic acid monoester, derived from andrographolide, has been found to inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
A leaf infusion administered intraperitoneally, has an LD50 at 71.1 mg/10 g body weight (acute toxicity). At a concentration of 1 mg/kg it lowers the body temperature at least 2°C[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The plant used to be considered an effective remedy against snake bites and it is still used locally for this[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. It has also been reported as useful to treat insect bites and, in combination with Orthosiphon aristatus, as a remedy for diabetes[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

An infusion or sap from the crushed leaves has been recommended for the treatment of fever, as a tonic, and for itching skin eruptions[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
A decoction of the leaves or roots is used against stomach-ache, dysentery, typhus, cholera, influenza and bronchitis, as a vermifuge, and is considered a diuretic[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Pills or infusions are also recommended to treat female disorders, dyspepsia, hypertension, rheumatism, gonorrhoea, amenorrhoea, torpid liver and jaundice[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Another use is as a poultice on swollen legs or feet, vitiligo and piles[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Furthermore, Andrographis paniculata is considered to be anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, but reports on antibacterial activity are contradictory[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The leaves should be harvested when the inflorescence axis starts to grow, because the maximum accumulation of andrographolide is at that stage[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The roots are harvested when leaves start discolouring or wilting[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Yields of 1 - 1.5 kg fresh weight/plant are obtained from 7-month-old plants[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
In general, the herb is used fresh and consumed within a few days after collection[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. However, leaves and roots should be washed and dried in the sun or artificially before storage[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Other Uses

Andrographis paniculata leaf extract is reported to have antifeedant and anti-oviposition activity against a number of crop pests like Callosobrunchus chinensis, Darcus dorsalis, Nephotettix cincticeps, Plutella xylostella, Sitophilus oryzae and Spodoptera litura[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Propagation

Seed - should be soaked for 24 hours and then dried before being sown[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Germination starts after 1 week and the mean germination rate is about 80%[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Cuttings consisting of 3 nodes taken from the upper third of 1-year-old plants have given the best results in vegetative propagation, with 80-90% rooting[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

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